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Many revolutionary movements are similar in a way. The revolutionary movements in Mexico, Venezuela, and Brazil have many similar characteristics. All of these countries gained their independence from a European power. As many things are similar, there are also some differences in them. With these three countries there is a different way in which they gain their independence. Mexican independence was won from Spain through two revolutions (1810 and 1821). Mexico was governed by Spanish viceroys for almost three centuries before gaining its independence. Spain had enforced a law excluding creoles or American-born Spaniards in Mexico from rights given to those who emigrated from the mother-country. This caused irritation between the two classes. The Viceroy showed little concern. Mexican people, however were actually giving the Madrid government money needed in the Napoleonic wars. Napoleon's invasion of Spain accelerated a revolution toward which that country had been steadily driving for Mexican subjects. Mexico at this time was Spain's richest and most populous country. The first stage of Mexican revolution took place in the Bajo region of north-central Mexico. Mexico, the Bajo region, was already afflicted with high prices when the news of Napoleon's invasion of Spain reached. On September 16, 1810 father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a priest of some talent, urged the crowd to rise up against the Spanish officials. Under Hidalgo's leadership, his people attacked ranches and mines that exploited them. The Viceroy, Vanegas, took several measures to suppress the insurrection. Hidalgo had the whole country north of Queretaro on his side. On October 24, 1810, Hidalgo was proclaimed generalissimo of the Mexican armies. Hidalgo and his army was excommunicated by the archbishop. Hidalgo, being a priest himself, easily persuaded his troops that an excommunication pronounced by their enemies could not avail against them, but the people who were at a distance abandoned a cause to which was attacked so dreadful a penalty. Many wealthy Mexicans at first supported Hidalgo, but soon recognized the threat that the angry masses who followed Hidalgo so they supported the Spanish authorities. In a battle at Puerto de Calderon on January 17, 1811, Hidalgo's army was totally defeated. Hidalgo retreated to San Luis Potosi where he was followed closely by his enemies. Hidalgo was soon captured and removed to Chihuahua where, after a form of a trial, he was shot (June 20, 1811). Hidalgo was deprived of his priest's orders before he was executed. The death of Hidalgo, however, did not impede the progress of the revolution. Maria Morelos, a former student of Hidalgo, continued the revolution. He and his force was victorious in several actions fought in the south against the Royalists. He successively captured the towns of Chilapa, Techucan, Orizaba, and Oaxaca, and shortly afterwards Acapulco fell into his power. Morelos next convened a congress assembled at Apatzinjan, in the Province of Valladoid. They framed a constitution and planned to suspend hostilities and to enter a treaty with the Royalist, but it was rejected and scorned. Morelos soon afterwards led an attack on Valladoid. He and his army was unsuccessful and had to retreat. Morelos was soon captured on November 5, 1815 in a place called Tapecuacuilco. He was conducted back to Mexico where he was executed on December 22, 1815 at San Cristobal. A creole by the Name of Colonel Agustin Iturbide was next to form an alliance with the remaining insurgents and declared Mexico's independence in 1821. Iturbide has been appointed by the viceroy to command to army destined to crush the remnant of the insurgent forces. He was furnished with money and he seized on a convoy of species belonging to the Manila merchants. As soon as revolutionist took possession of the capitol, a junta, composed of thirty-six members, was appointed, a regency of five prisoners was chosen, of which Iturbide was made president. He was also appointed admirals and generalissimo of the navy and army. He was assigned a yearly salary of one hundred twenty thousand dollars. Hidalgo, Morelos and Iturbide were intricate parts of Mexico's revolutions. Just as Hidalgo, Morelos, and Iturbide were intricate parts of the Mexican revolution, Simon Bolivar played an intricate role in Venezuela's revolution. Bolivar was put in command of Puerto Cabello, but the Spanish forces were too much for and he was driven out by Spanish General Juan Domingo Monteverde. Monteverde defeated the entire army and captured Francisco Miranda, its leader. Bolivar , however fled to Curacao. When Bolivar returned, he defeated Monteverde at Lanaguanes. He had also captured Caracus in August of 1813. Bolivar also had victories at Ararue, La Victoria, and San Mateo. Bulivar also had a victory at Carabobo befor he was defeated by Boves at La Puerta. Bolivar was given another revolutionary command at New Granada, the place where he fled after his defeat. Bolivar again returned back to Venezuela in 1816. He led a new movement against Morillo. An important victory for Bolivar came near Barcelona. Bolivar at this point was recognized as the commander in chief. He planned to raise the country against the Spanish. At the Battle of Boyaca, Bolivar outmaneuvered Spanish Colonel Barreira, placing his troops between Barreiro and the capital. Bolivar's army completely routed the Spanish calvary. Ther were many killed, over a thousand prisoners, and all the Spaniard's heavy weapons were taken. This was the decisive battle of the revolution. Bolivar liberated Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador. He defeated the last spanish armies in 1824 and Venezuela was declared independent in 1829. Mexico and Venezuela achieved independence through an excess amount of fighting. However, Brazil acquired its independence through no bloodshed, and kept it with credit. When King John VI arrived in Brazil, he found himself obliged to assent to a constitution which treated his Brazilian subjects as mere colonists. Succeeding mails brought orders more and more humiliating to the Brazilians. The thought or design of Brazil becoming independent was growing more and more in public favour. The term Independence ou morte was adopted as the watch word of the revolution. It was mentioned by Prince Pedro at a council. In 1822, Pedro declared fbrazilian independence. Brazil established a constitutional maonarchy with Pedro as the emperor. The monarch survived until Pedro II was overthrown by republicans in 1889. Mexico, Brazil, and Venezuela all gained their independence in the 1800s. Their strive to independence was made possible by Napolean' s attack on Spain and Portugal. Venezuela and Mexico gained their independence through violence, while Brazil gained their independence the non-violent way. Theses countries had a main centerpiece to revolve their revolution around. These centerpieces are considered heroes in these three countries. Also, Brazil and Venezuela had slaves in their army because they promised that they would help end slavery. These revolutionary movements have made modern day Mexico, Venezuela, and Brazil the countries that they are today Word Count: 1133
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